O Psihoterapiji

U psihološkom savetovalištu KONTRAPUNKT primenjuje se jedna od najpoznatijih novih terapija-geštalt psihoterapija.

Geštalt je nemačka reč i označava celinu, jedinstvo.
Geštalt terapija se bavi čovekom kao jedinstvenom celinom tela i psihe.Njegovo telesno funkcionisanje, njegove emocije, misli, kultura i socijalno ponašanje su samo aspekti jedne iste pojave-samog čoveka.
Cilj geštalt terapije je postizanje svesnosti klijenta o svim ovim aspektima i njihovo povezivanje, što vodi ostvarivanju potencijala i razvoju u zrelu ličnost.
Prihvatanje sebe onakvima kakvi jesmo stvaramo mogućnost za neke promene, ako zaključimo da su nam potrebne. Ovo nas vodi prihvatanju drugih onakvima kakvi oni jesu.Ne trudimo se da ih promenimo, jer to nije na nama, nego na njima.Svako je odgovoran samo za sebe i sopstveni život.

Pravila rada u geštalt terapiji (uče se tokom terapije)

• Uz uzajamno poštovanje i razumevanje terapeut i klijent sklapaju “radni savez”, pri čemu terapeut prihvata klijenta bez nekog ličnog vrednovanja njegovih osećanja i ponašanja.Terapeut je ljudsko biće kao i klijent, s tim što poseduje određena stručna znanja i iskustva koja koristi u radu sa klijentom (tzv. JA-TI odnos).
• Terapeut podstiče klijenta da koristi lični JA govor (npr, ne “nervira me nered”, nego “ja sebe nerviram neredom”). Klijent postepeno razvija svesnost o odgovornosti za sve ono što čini i sve ono što ne čini.Stiče poverenje u svoju unutrašnju kontrolu i osećanje lične sposobnosti za rešavanje sopstvenih problema i obaveza.
• Klijent uz pomoć terapeuta sam tumači svoja osećanja i ponašanja, ne “serviraju” mu se gotova rešenja i odgovori.
• Klijent i terapeut se bave onim što je “ovde i sada”, čime se ne odbacuje značaj prošlosti ili budućnosti.Pojačava se svesnost klijenta o tome da jedino u sadašnjosti možemo nešto da uradimo.
Kada smo “ovde i sada”, u dobrom smo kontaktu sa sobom, sa situacijom u kojoj se nalazimo i sa okolinom.
Postajemo svesni kako mi sami određujemo svoje ponašanje u nekoj situaciji.Tako možemo da uvidimo da li bi neko drugo ponašanje bilo adekvatnije.Obrasci ponašanja koji nisu više uspešni mogu da se promene ili zamene drugim, uspešnijim.

Tehnike geštalt terapije su mnogobrojne i zasnivaju se na eksperimentisanju.Često su i neverbalne prirode-klijent se upućuje na svesnost o tome kako se oseća (a ne da samo priča o osećanjima), na svesnost o tome šta radi (dela ne samo da mogu da govore više od reči, već ponekad govore i drugačije).Njihova primena čini terapiju dinamičnom i skraćuje psihoterapiju (omogućava brže rešavanje problema).

Primena geštalt terapije je široka:

• osećanje nezadovoljstva, depresije
• osećanje usamljenosti
• anksioznost, strah
• stres
• problemi dečjeg doba (tikovi, noćno mokrenje)
• adolescentni problemi (odnosi sa vršnjacima, roditeljima)
• problemi u učenju
• partnerski i seksualni problemi

At the KONTRAPUNKT center for counselling and psychotherapy, one of the most famous new therapies-gestalt therapy, is applied.
Gestalt is a word of German origin, and refers to a whole, a unity.
Gestalt therapy deals with the individual as a unified whole of body and mind. The physical functions, emotions, thoughts, culture, and social behaviors of a person are just aspects of that same person himself/herself.
The goal in gestalt therapy is to gain awareness regarding all of these aspects and to connect them together, leading to the realization of potential and personal development.
By accepting ourselves as we truly are, we create the possibility for change, if we decide change is necessary. This leads to accepting others as they are. We do not try to change them, because it not ours to do so, their change belongs to them. Everyone is responsible only for themselves and their own life.
The rules in gestalt therapy (the client is acquainted with them during therapy)
• With mutual respect for each other, the client and therapist form a “working agreement”, where the therapist accepts the client without any personal evaluation of the client’s feelings and behaviors. The therapist is a human being, just like the client, with the difference in possessing certain professional knowledges and experiences which he/she uses in working with the client (the so called I-YOU relationship).
• The therapist invites the client to talk in “I” , personal form (for example, instead of “the mess irritates me”, “I irritate myself with the mess” would be more appropriate). The client slowly develops awareness about the responsibility he/she has for everything he/she does and does not do. He/she gains trust in her/his inner sense of control and the sense of personal responsibility for solving and taking care of his/her own personal problems and obligations.
• With the help of the therapist, the client interprets his/her own feelings and behaviors, solutions and answers are not “served” to him/her.
• The client and therapist deal with what is “here and now”, and not in a way that dismisses the significance of the past and the future. The client’s awareness that we can only do something here and now is amplified. When we are “here and now”, we are in good contact with ourselves, with the situation in which we find ourselves, and the environment.
We become aware of how much we ourselves determine our behavior in a certain situation. In that way, we can consider choosing a different behavior as a more adequate solution. Behavior patterns which are no longer successful can be changed or be replaced by other, more successful ones.
The techniques of gestalt therapy are numerous, and are based on experimenting. They are often non-verbal in nature-the client is invited to come to awareness regarding his/her feelings (and not just talk about feelings), awareness on what he/she does (actions can be not only stronger than words, but sometimes even speak differently). The application of these techniques makes therapy dynamic and shortens the time in psychotherapy (allows for quicker problem solving).
Gestalt therapy has a wide range of application:
• feelings of dissatisfaction, depression
• feelings of loneliness
• anxiety, fear
• stress
• childhood age problems (tics, bed wetting)
• adolescent problems (relationships with peers, parents)
• study problems
• partner and sexual problems
• family problems
• midlife crisis
• psychosomatic ailments (rapid heart rates, high blood pressure, swallowing difficulties, and similar problems with a psychological basis)
• appetite disorders (weight problems)
• sleep disorders etc.

Danijela Stojanović, klinički psiholog i psihoterapeut
• porodični problemi
• krize zrelog doba
• psihosomatske tegobe (ubrzani rad srca, povišeni krvni pritisak, teškoće pri gutanju i slični problemi koji imaju psihološku osnovu)
• poremećaji apetita (višak, odn. manjak težine)
• poremećaji sna, itd.